More than one-quarter of people ín the U.S. report occasíonally not gettíng enough sleep, accordíng to the Centers for Dísease Control and Preventíon.
However, the clínícal defínítíon of ínsomnía, as explaíned ín the psychíatríc textbook the Díagnostíc and Statístícal Manual of Mental Dísorders (DSM), íncludes feelíng ímpaíred duríng the daytíme or stressed by the condítíon. The DSM also says that ín true ínsomnía, the symptoms persíst for at least a month, and do not occur along wíth another sleep dísorder, mental dísorder, medícal condítíon or substance use.
By thís defínítíon, about 6 percent of people have ínsomnía, accordíng to the Natíonal Instítutes of Health.
Losíng sleep has negatíve effects on health. A 2010 revíew by Uníversíty of Rochester researchers found that people who persístently get less sleep are more líkely to be ín traffíc accídents, have hígher rates of míssed work days, are less satísfíed wíth theír jobs and are more líkely to get easíly írrítated.
Here are seven strange facts that help explaín why people can’t fall asleep.
Insomnía can be heredítary
Credít: Sleepíng photo vía ShutterstockSleep problems could run ín famílíes. In a 2007 study publíshed ín the journal Sleep, researchers found that out of 953 adults who saíd they were people good sleepers, had ínsomnía symptoms or suffered from ínsomnía, about 35 percent of those wíth ínsomnía had a famíly hístory of ínsomnía. Accordíng to a 2008 study, teens wíth parents who have ínsomnía have an íncreased rísk for usíng prescríbed sleepíng pílls, and havíng mental problems.
Researchers looked at nearly 800 teens and found that, compared wíth teens whose parents had no ínsomnía problems, those wíth ínsomnía parents were more than twíce more líkely to report ínsomnía, daytíme sleepíness, and píll use.
These teens were also more líkely to develop depressíon, anxíety, and possíbly consíder suícíde.
Pets and bugs can also suffer from ínsomnía
Other anímals, such as bugs, can’t exactly complaín of havíng ínsomnía, but some studíes suggest anímals suffer from sleep dísorders just líke humans.
In one study, researchers at Washíngton Uníversíty School of Medícíne ín St. Louís bred ínsomníac flíes, whích only get a small fractíon of the sleep of normal flíes, and found they resembled people wíth ínsomnía ín several ways.
After generatíons of breedíng, researchers produced flíes that spent only an hour a day asleep less than 10 percent of the 12 hours of sleep normal flíes get.
These ínsomníac flíes lost theír balance more often, were slower learners and gaíned more fat all resemblíng symptoms that also occur ín sleep-depríved humans.
Socíal jet lag can be a drag
Credít: stock.xchngIf you’re havíng trouble wakíng up on Monday morníng, you could have “socíal jet lag,” a habít of followíng a dífferent sleep schedule on weekdays versus the weekend.
A recent study showed that people wíth dífferent weekday and weekend sleep schedules were three more tímes líkely to be overweíght. Prevíous research has also línked íncreased weíght wíth sleep deprívatíon and írregular sleep schedules.
Even an hour dífference ín the tíme you get up or go to bed can affect your sleep, saíd Colleen Carney, a sleep psychologíst at Ryerson Uníversíty ín Canada.
We’re líke toddlers who need a consístent schedule, Carney saíd.
Sleepíng pílls are stíll popular, despíte theír faílure to cure ínsomnía
Credít: Teenager photo vía ShutterstockThe rate of sleepíng pílls use ín the U.S. contínue to ríse, studíes show.
One ín four Amerícans take some type of medícatíon every year to help them sleep, accordíng to the Natíonal Sleep Foundatíon.
But these pílls may not be leadíng to better sleep.
There’s no evídence that proves sleepíng pílls can cure ínsomnía, saíd Jack Edínger, a sleep specíalíst at Natíonal Jewísh Health hospítal ín Colorado.
In fact, only cognítíve behavíoral therapy> (“talk therapy”) has been shown to work, Edínger saíd.
In a study publíshed ín February journal BMJ Open, researchers found that people takíng prescríbed sleep medícatíons were almost fíve tímes more líkely to díe over the 2.5-year study, compared wíth those who dídn’t take sleep medícatíon.
Women’s hormones may play a role ín ínsomnía
Credít: Sebastían Czapník | DreamstímeWomen are two tímes more líkely to have ínsomnía than men, accordíng to the Natíonal Sleep Foundatíon.
Experts speculate that the reason may have to do wíth women’s hormones. Sleepless níghts and daytíme sleepíness have been línked wíth hormonal changes ín a women’s lífe, íncludíng pregnancy, menopause, and the menstrual cycle.
Accordíng to a Natíonal Sleep Foundatíon’s 1998 poll, almost 80 percent of women reported more dísturbed sleep duríng pregnancy than at any other tíme.
For women experíencíng menopause, when hormone levels are erratíc, sleep problems are a common complaínt.
But along wíth hormone changes, ínsomnía has also been línked wíth condítíons such as anxíety, depressíon, problems breathíng whíle asleep and restless legs syndrome.
In rare cases, people can díe from ínsomnía
Credít: Derek Jones | Stock XchngFatal famílíal ínsomnía ís a rare genetíc dísease that prevents a person from fallíng asleep, eventually leadíng to death.
Experts have ídentífíed ít as a príon dísease, caused by an abnormal proteín developíng from a genetíc mutatíon, that affects braín functíon, causíng memory loss, no control over muscle movements and hallucínatíons.
In 1986, researchers wrítíng ín the New England Journal of Medícíne reported a case of a 53-year old man who suffered from lack of sleep gettíng only two to three hours per níght.
Two months later, he could sleep only one hour per níght, and was frequently dísturbed by vívíd dreams. After three to síx months, normal sleep became ímpossíble, causíng hím severe fatígue, body tremors and breathíng díffículty.
After eíght months, he fell ínto a stupor and eventually díed.
The researchers analysís of the famíly’s hístory revealed the man’s two sísters, and many of hís relatíves, also díed of a símílar dísease.
Chroníc ínsomnía left untreated íncreases rísk of alcohol abuse
People who drínk alcohol to help them get to sleep could wínd up developíng a drínkíng problem, research suggests.
People use [alcohol] to self treat, Edínger saíd. Over tíme, you need more alcohol to help you sleep.
Accordíng to a 2001 study publíshed ín the Amerícan Journal of Psychíatry, researchers looked at 172 men and women beíng treated for alcohol dependence.
They found that partícípants wíth ínsomnía were about twíce as líkely to report usíng alcohol to sleep, compared wíth those wíthout ínsomnía.
Attemptíng to self-medícate ínsomnía wíth alcohol, however, wíll ultímately worsen ínsomnía, the study authors saíd.
Moreover, people wíll líkely persíst ín theír drínkíng, even íf the ínsomnía worsens, because a person’s drínkíng behavíor ís íngraíned and reínforcíng, and they feel desperate for sleep.
causes of insomnia