The word screening refers to testing to find a disease like cancer in people who do not have symptoms of that disease. For some types of cancer, screening can help find cancers at an early stage, when they are more easily cured. The goal of screening is to help people live healthier, longer lives. The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find it early, in the hope that it can be treated more effectively. Prostate cancer can often be found early by testing the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a man’s blood. Another way to find prostate cancer early is the digital rectal exam (DRE). For this exam, the doctor puts a gloved finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland. These 2 tests are described in more detail in the section, “What tests can detect prostate cancer?” if the results of either one of these tests are abnormal, further testing is needed to see if there is a cancer. if prostate cancer is found as a result of screening with the PSA test or DRE, it will probably be at an earlier, more treatable stage than if no screening were done. Since using early detection tests for prostate cancer became relatively common in the United States (about 1990), the prostate cancer death rate has dropped. But it isn’t clear yet that this drop is a direct result of screening. it could also be caused by something else, like improvements in treatment. There is no question that screening can help spot many prostate cancers early, but there are limits to the prostate cancer screening tests used today. Neither the PSA test nor the DRE is 100% accurate. These tests can sometimes have abnormal results even when a man does not have cancer (known as false-positive results). Normal results can also occur even when a man does have cancer (known as false-negative results). Unclear test results can cause confusion and anxiety. False-positive results can lead some men to have a prostate biopsy (with small risks of pain, infection, and bleeding) when they do not have cancer. And false-negative results can give some men a false sense of security even though they actually have cancer. Another important issue is that even if screening detects a cancer, doctors often can’t tell if the cancer is truly dangerous. Finding and treating all prostate cancers early might seem as if it would always be a good thing, but some prostate cancers grow so slowly that they would probably never cause problems. Because of an elevated PSA level, some men may be diagnosed with a prostate cancer that they would have never even known about at all. it would never have lead to their death, or even caused any symptoms. But these men may still be treated with either surgery or radiation, either because the doctor can’t be sure how quickly the cancer might grow and spread, or because the men are uncomfortable knowing they have cancer and not getting any treatment. Treatments like surgery and radiation can have urinary, bowel, and/or sexual side effects that may seriously affect a man’s quality of life. Men and their doctors may end up struggling over whether they need treatment or whether they might be able to be followed without being treated right away (an approach called watchful waiting or active surveillance). Even when men are not treated right away, they still need regular blood tests and prostate biopsies to determine the need for future treatment. These tests are linked with risks of anxiety, pain, infection, and bleeding. To help figure out if prostate cancer screening is worthwhile, doctors are conducting large studies to see if early detection tests will lower the risk of death from prostate cancer. The most recent results from 2 large studies were conflicting, and didn’t offer clear answers.
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